Art logistics is a one-stop service covering packaging, transportation, insurance, exhibition, etc.
The biggest difference between art logistics and ordinary cargo transportation is that through the comprehensive design of the above links, art logistics can greatly improve the safety of the transportation of works of art. The pursuit of art logistics is 100% safety, which requires professional art transport logistics companies to take charge of all aspects. Art works are different from general goods. Their uniqueness and immeasurable value determine the particularity of packaging and transportation.
The packaging and transportation of artworks should mainly prevent natural and perceived damage. Natural factors include light, humidity, temperature, fungi, pests and so on. Artificial factors include: collision, vibration, wear and tear during transportation, man-made fire, flood and so on. In order to keep the research value of art, science and history unaffected in the process of packaging and transportation of artworks, appropriate packaging materials, containers and tailor-made technical protection measures should be applied to protect artworks from mildew, shock, corrosion and moisture. With the development of art packaging, it has become a comprehensive science involving physics, chemistry, mechanics, automatic control and other disciplines. Various new materials and technologies have been applied to the field of art packaging and transportation.
2. Packaging of artworks
The basic function of artwork packaging is to protect artworks. Art exhibitions can be roughly divided into paper-based Chinese paintings, calligraphy, oil paintings, weaving and embroidery textiles, and three-dimensional artworks, mainly including metal, stone and wood sculptures. Their packaging protection methods are different. The following briefly introduces several methods of art packaging.
2.1 Paper-based Painting and Calligraphy and Oil Painting Packaging
Paper-based works of art mainly include: calligraphy, traditional Chinese painting, sketch, photography. Generally, it is packed in barrel or baggage style. The outer of the painting case is made of strong and durable coarse cloth, and the inner layer is made of soft silk cloth. Painting and calligraphy works are most afraid of damage, mold, dampness and moth. Therefore, tailor-made wooden boxes become the ideal choice. You can wrap the painting and calligraphy with a soft cloth cover, and then wrap it with a protective "polyethylene foam plastic film" to form a barrier. Then you can put the packaged painting and calligraphy works into the box. There is no paper paste or paint in the box. A small amount of desiccant and insect repellent is put into the box to ensure the safety of the works of art. As for oil paintings and murals, they are generally large in size and cannot be folded or curled. Therefore, when packaging, oil paintings must be dried for more than 8 days to meet the conditions of transportation. Before choosing packaging materials, we should first understand the characteristics of oil painting materials. Mismatched materials will lead to damage. For example, some synthetic foam packaging can cause harmful gas to damage the surface of the oil painting. The same other materials can also cause damage if they are not allowed to circulate air. The correct way is to wrap it with a soft, acid-free sheet of cellophane or polyethylene paper. Such packaging can keep the work clean and absorb the moisture caused by the fluctuation of temperature and humidity. Then it is packed into boxes with sheets slightly larger than the screen, tied up with ropes and discharged into wooden boxes, which can be filled with moisture-proof agents to prevent oil painting from dampness.
2.2 Packaging of embroidery textiles
Embroidery is sensitive to light and is vulnerable to pests and fungi. Therefore, embroidery should be stored separately according to silk, silk, cotton, hemp and other textures. Wooden boxes or pull cabinets should be customized according to the size of the artwork. Layer by layer, as far as possible do not fold, the top with polyethylene synthetic paper cover, put insect repellent and desiccant, so that packaging can be insect-proof and moisture-proof and avoid scratching works. Packing with RP material piece by piece, the sealed embroidery is placed in the laminate or wooden box separately to avoid bumping and wearing.
2.3 Packaging of Three-dimensional Sculpture Works
Three-dimensional works of art cover a wide range, including copper carvings, wood carvings, stone carvings and fragile ceramics, jades and so on. They mostly use the packaging method of "bag box". Packaging of bags and boxes is not only conducive to dust-proof, moisture-proof and convenient for daily work, but also can prevent collision damage caused by man-made vibration and transportation. It should be pointed out that the structure of the inner capsule is very important. The inner capsule is usually paved with soft rubber or polyethylene foam plastics. The inner capsule is cut with wood or light plastic plates to compare the shape of the work. The inner capsule supports with different sizes and shapes are made for earthquake resistance, compression resistance, heat insulation and moisture insulation. The size of the inner capsule case is suitable. The shape of the inner capsule box changes with the shape of the work, such as the work with a cover. To remove the lid and place it in a special internal capsule, the inner capsule should be filled with soft cloth or plastic foam, so as to prevent the damage of the artwork in the process of transportation along with the wobble of the car body. Even if only a small part of the figure, such as a finger of the sculpture, will cause irreparable losses. For the packaging of painted pottery, special attention should be paid to the protection of the design part of the color, do not let the pattern directly contact with the inner bag, otherwise the pastel will be rubbed off because of friction when loading and taking out. Therefore, a layer of soft paper or cloth should be wrapped around the outside of the pottery to reduce the possibility of the pottery pattern falling off.
The external requirements of the case are mainly strong. Sculptures are inevitably squeezed into wooden boxes during transportation, so the bottoms of the boxes must bear considerable pressure. Secondly, pay attention to the selection of materials. The main material for making the outer capsule is cardboard or wood board. The material of the outer capsule can be selected according to the size of the work. Large volume and heavy weight must be packed with wooden boards as outer capsules, and the corners around them should be strengthened with metal, so as to prevent the damage of outer capsule wooden boxes caused by knocking and vibration. The bottom of the wooden box should be strengthened with wooden strips, that is, to strengthen the structure and reserve space for the forklift truck to facilitate the transport of sculpture works. For fragile works, we can also adopt the double-bag method, that is, the cushion is wrapped in the middle of the two outer capsules as a buffer layer to reduce vibration, so that the impact of car and train vibration on the works is not great.
3. Transportation of artworks
The main function of artwork packaging is to prevent collision and vibration during transportation. Scientific transportation method can make the loading and unloading, counting and unpacking of artworks go smoothly in the process of exhibition, so as to ensure that there is no mistake.
3.1 Transport Rationalization
Firstly, before the artwork is packed into the box, the bottom and around the box are filled with shock-proof and moisture-proof materials. It is better to choose light weight, easy to handle and shock-absorbing polyethylene foam plastic and put it into the artwork box. This is because the packing wooden box is an independent space with different sizes. It is impossible for the work to be seamed tightly when it is loaded into the wooden box. Moreover, the outer capsule box is made of wood or cardboard, which is not very firm. Friction with the wooden box during transportation can easily cause the work to wear and tear. This requires filling some materials to prevent wear and tear and increase the safety factor. Sponge, foam plastic or cardboard should be chosen at this time. Hard rubber and other fillers. With the development of chemical industry, new sponge foam plastics are increasing day by day. They are soft, easy to cut and can be tailored at will according to the situation after packing. They are very flexible. After filling up the spare space of the box, they can also reduce the vibration intensity even if they suffer severe turbulence.
3.2 Transportation Standardization
The outer packing box of artworks should be hard, firm and easy to open. The outer packing should be a combinable wooden box. Firstly, the bottom of the box is firmly connected with the boards around it by screw. After the work is packed, the lid of the box is firmly fixed on the wooden box by long screw, which avoids the vibration of the box caused by knocking iron tins after the artwork is packed and causes the damage of the work. Because wooden boxes are easy to be broken up in the process of handling, it is necessary to reinforce the edges and corners of wooden boxes with metal handles for easy lifting. Outside the boxes, anti-seismic, anti-dumping and anti-line signs should be marked. In this way, the workers will not reverse the direction of the work and increase the safety factor.
Generally, the size of goods transported by trucks, ships and airplanes should not be too large. The outer packing size is about 120 cm long and 90 cm wide. It will be convenient for forklift trucks to transport in the future. The bottom and bottom of the box are separated by wooden square, leaving a gap of about 15 cm. Packing tape is usually packed with masking tape. Nylon strong binding tape is used to seal containers. This tape has good adhesion. Therefore, it should be used very carefully to keep it away from the packaging materials of artistic works or works of art.
3.3 Scientific Transportation
Transport exhibition works vary from tens to hundreds, thousands or even tens of thousands of pieces each time. Because of the different texture and size of the works, the weight and weight are different, it is impossible to pack them neatly and uniformly. Therefore, in packaging, loading and unloading, open-box counting, it is very easy to mispack or miss-pack, which brings great trouble to the exhibition work. Therefore, scientific methods in packaging and transportation are put on us. The major issue before us.
For the sake of scientific packaging artworks and preventing errors, packing list should be made at the same time. The contents of the list include: box number, work number, work name and number of pieces. Fill in a list after filling a box, and each box of physical objects must be checked with the list before packing can be sealed. After loading a batch of works, all packing lists and delivery lists should be verified and checked before driving. The packing list is kept in duplicate by a special person in charge of freight transportation, one in sealed box and one in charge of freight transportation for inspection at any time. When unpacking, first check the list of goods is correct, then carry out the installation.
Large-scale art exhibitions have a long exhibition period, many exhibition venues and different staff in the middle of the exhibition. This requires standardized and scientific packaging of works in order to avoid confusion. Therefore, the goods should have a detailed packing list and loading list, and a special person is responsible for keeping the list. The list contains photos and numbers of the works, so as long as the packaging person in charge is present, no matter which group of people come to carry, or to any corner of the world, there will be no problem.
4. Transport Insurance
Art logistics is a one-stop service covering packaging, transportation, insurance and exhibition, so transportation insurance is an essential part of art logistics. With the rapid development of China's foreign exchanges, there are more and more opportunities for foreign art works to be exhibited in China. For example, during the Beijing Olympic Games, 200 fixed exhibitions and 200 temporary exhibitions of artworks were launched in Beijing alone. Although art activities are becoming more and more frequent, due to our lack of professional art insurance companies, art exhibitions are mainly at the risk of the organizers. In this way, there is a great demand for insurance market in art exhibition, transportation and safety in China.
Art insurance involves identification, transportation safety, theft-proof, valuation and other links, which is highly professional. Our country should conform to the development of the market and train a group of professional artwork insurance talents. To train professionals in the field of art restoration and transport and preservation, and to provide professional and humane services to customers. At the same time, in order to disperse the risk of artworks and cope with the impact of catastrophe on insurance companies, new businesses such as "co-insurance" and "sub-insurance" should be developed. Specifically, while expanding the insurance business, insurance companies should expand the cooperation channels of artwork insurance, explore the risk decentralization system, and reduce the risk burden of insurance companies. For example, as the principal contractor of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, China Insurance Co., Ltd. has formed a community with eight insurance companies, such as Pacific and Anbang, to undertake the art insurance of the World Expo. It has formulated a special art insurance clause for the World Expo: the Articles and Art Insurance Provisions of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, China. This clause will become a relevant clause for many insurance companies in the future. The important reference of the period, "co-insurance" and "sub-insurance" modes provide specific reference for the development of art insurance specialization in China.
Art packaging and transportation is a rigorous and professional technology. Professional art logistics companies and scientific packaging and transportation methods can ensure the smooth handling, transportation, counting and unpacking of art works in the exhibition process. For a long time, China's exhibition transport logistics basically relies on Museum managers with rich practical experience, using traditional experience to implement transport packaging, lack of systematic and in-depth research. There is a lack of professional team building in China. Overseas, there are professional companies and transport teams in art transport logistics. Some influential international art logistics companies have their own packaging research and development departments and packaging experts, who are specially responsible for the packaging and transportation of large-scale art exhibitions. Therefore, China should strengthen cooperation with international professional companies and boldly introduce new technologies and technologies with the strong support of the state, so as to make great contributions to improving the logistics level of art transportation and promoting the Chinese culture.